EM Quant® Peroxide Test, Catalog No. 10011
Test strips and reagent for the detection
and semi-quantitative determination of peroxides
The Peroxide Test detects inorganic and organic
compounds containing a peroxide or a hydroperoxide group. It is well
suited to the routine checking of simple ethers such as diethyl ether
(ethyl ether), tetrahydrofuran and dioxan. The polymeric peroxides
sometimes occurring in simple ethers are only detected with reduced
sensitivity, if at all. This being so, it is advisable to perform a
trial determination in the laboratory to verify that the Peroxide Test
strip gives satisfactory results.
As well as for checking ethers, this product can
be used to test UHT milk for residual peroxide, to measure perborates
in washing powders, to check electrolytic etching and copper stripping
baths, to test peroxides used as bleaches or oxidants in paper
manufacture and the textile industry, and to determine peroxides in
swimming pool water.
Peroxide is an excellent bactericide, fungicide
and virucide which does not produce harmful decomposition products.
These properties and also the fact that it is a very versatile
disinfectant (used sometimes in combination with peracetic acid), make
peroxide suitable for use in the food industry. Here, the Peroxide
Test can be used not only to monitor disinfectant concentrations but
also to test for residues on equipment after cleaning and rinsing.
Principle of the Method
Peroxidase (POD) transfers oxygen from peroxide
to an organic redox indicator, which is converted to a blue oxidation
When organic solvents are tested, the moisture
required for the reaction to occur is provided by breathing on the
reaction zone several times or by immersing in distilled water.
0 - 0.5 - 2 - 5 - 10 - 25mg/l (ppm) H2O2
- Remove a test strip and close the container
- Immerse the test strip in the sample
solution for 1 second, so that the reaction zone is thoroughly
- Remove the test strip, gently shake off
excess liquid, wait 15 seconds and compare the reaction zone with
the color scale.
The sample solution should be between pH 2 and
Strongly acidic solutions (pH <2) must be
buffered with sodium acetate; strongly alkaline solutions (pH >7)
with citric acid.
The appearance of a blue color within 3 minutes
can still be interpreted as a positive reaction.
If the zone turns deep blue, green or brown, the
peroxide concentration is too high, in which case the sample must be
Use in Dairies
In dairies checks must be made on the diethyl
ether peroxide concentration of the extraction ether used for fat
determinations and on hydrogen peroxide levels in salt baths,
peroxide-containing disinfectants and other liquids. Peroxide
concentrations must be monitored in the preparation of sterilized
(UHT) milk. The packaging material used for flexible containers is
disinfected by passing it through a hydrogen peroxide bath. At the
point of sale, however, the milk must not contain any peroxide.
The Peroxide Test can also be used to
distinguish between fresh milk and milk which has turned slightly
sour. Sour milk contains pyruvate, which reacts with hydrogen
peroxide. The amount of hydrogen peroxide used up in the reaction
forms the basis of a simple test:
Add a known quantity of H2O2
(1 to 10 drops, 0.3%) to a known volume of milk (e.g. 10ml) and shake
well. After a defined reaction time (e.g. 3 minutes) briefly immerse a
Peroxide Test strip in the mixture and then remove. Fresh milk
produces a blue color on the reaction zone, while sour milk leaves it
white because all of the H2O2 is consumed by
the pyruvate. Fresh milk typically produces a slight blue coloration
following addition of 2 drops of 0.3% H2O2,
while 7 drops are required if the milk is sour.
We have deliberately left the procedure rather
vague and leave it to individual milk testing stations to select the
amount of milk taken, the number of drops of reagent to be added and
the reaction time.
- Immerse a test strip for approximately 1
second in the solvent being tested and allow to evaporate.
- Breathe on the reaction zone 4 times for 3-5
seconds each time. Alternatively, immerse briefly in distilled
- Compare the reaction zone with the color
Low Volatility Ethers
A. Immiscible with water.
- Mix a sample of the ether to be tested with
3 times its volume of peroxide-free ether or petroleum benzine
(boiling range 40-60°C).
- Test as described under "Volatile
- Record the value indicated on the scale and
multiply by 4.
B. Miscible with water
- Mix a sample of the ether to be tested with
3 times its volume of distilled water.
- Immerse a test strip for approximately 1
- Wait 2 minutes and compare with the color
Convert the results as under "Conversion."
Allowing for dilution, 3mg/l on the color scale
is equivalent to:
90mg/l tetrahydrofuran peroxide or 30mg/l
peroxide calculated as H2O2
150mg/l dioxan peroxide or 45mg/l peroxide
calculated as H2O2.
If a dark blue to brown or a green to brown
color is produced, the peroxide concentration is too high for the
color scale. In this case dilute with water, peroxide-free ether or
petroleum benzine (boiling range 40-60°C) as appropriate, and
test as directed.
Inorganic peroxides are determined in aqueous
solution at pH 2-12. Measure the pH with non-bleeding universal
indicator strips (pH 0-14) Item #9590-3. If necessary, adjust the pH
of the solution with citric acid or 1 mol/l sulfuric acid, or with
sodium citrate or sodium acetate as appropriate.
For ethylene glycol monoethyl ether containing
4-50mg/l ethylene glycol monoethyl ether peroxide, proceed as
Mix a sample of the solvent with an equal volume
of fully demineralized water. Briefly immerse a test strip in the
aqueous phase, wait 15 seconds and compare the reaction zone with the
color scale. Multiply the value obtained by 4 to give the peroxide
content in mg H2O2 per liter of ethylene
glycol monoethyl ether.
Unlike with the conventional methods used to
determine ether peroxides. the Peroxide Test strips allow peroxides to
be concentrated by repeatedly immersing and breathing on the reaction
zone. Immersing a strip once and breathing on it three times enables
as little as 5mg/l diethyl ether peroxide to be detected by matching
against the lowest value on the scale, and as little as 2mg/l to be
estimated. When this procedure is repeated 5 times, as little as 0.5mg/l of diethyl ether peroxide (~2.5 x 10–5% hydrogen
peroxide) can still be clearly detected. Not only is this method of
detection just as sensitive as the conventional reaction of ether
peroxide with potassium iodide in solution (DAB 6 determination), it
also gives a reading of the same ether peroxide concentrations in a
matter of minutes as opposed to an hour. The conventional potassium
iodide/starch paper (which just about enables 20mg/l ether peroxide
to be detected) is far less sensitive than the Peroxide Test strips.
Use in Organic Solvents
It is generally recognized that ether peroxides
are dangerous. However, the danger is often underestimated when ethers
are being distilled, resulting in explosions which could really be
avoided. Explosions can also occur when containers of
peroxide-containing liquids are jolted or the peroxides ignite as a
result of friction upon opening. This type of risk is inherent not
only in ethers such as diethyl ether, diisopropyl ether, dioxan and
tetrohydrofuran, but also in other liquids which show a tendency to
form peroxides. These include unsaturated hydrocarbons, aldehydes,
ketones and tetralin. In order to prevent accidents, these liquids
must be tested for peroxides at regular intervals and again prior to
their use. The Peroxide Test is extremely useful for performing rapid,
reliable, semi-quantitative checks for the presence of hydroperoxides
and ether peroxides. It is therefore ideal as a routine test for
simple ethers such as diethyl ether, tetrahydrofuran and dioxan.
Polymeric peroxides, which occasionally form in diethyl ether, are not
detected. The following peroxides either do not react or do so with
considerably reduced sensitivity: tert-butyl perbenzoate, dicumyl
peroxide, di-tert-butyl peroxide and 1,3-cyclooctadiene. In these
cases preliminary testing is recommended, since varying the test
conditions sometimes enables a reproducible result to be obtained, or
at least a qualitative indication that peroxides are present. Samples
should be analyzed simultaneously in the laboratory to verify the
suitability of the test strips for the particular test envisaged.
What's more, special attention must be given to the expiration date
for the test. Control determinations may be needed on ethers of known
Polymeric peroxides produce a yellow or orange
color with titanium sulfate in 50% sulfuric acid.
Notes on the Handling of Diethyl Ether
Ether must never be distilled to dryness. When
the volume of ether is large, even an initial peroxide content so low
as to remain undetected may build up to a dangerous level.
It is advisable to test ethers regularly and
whenever they are about to be used.
Numerous methods of destroying peroxides have
been proposed. All of these offer only a partial solution, however.
For example, in water-immiscible solvents, hydroperoxides may be
removed while polymeric peroxides are not.
A method of removing peroxide:
Shake before use with a freshly prepared
solution of iron (II) sulfate (for each liter of ether, use 5 g iron
(II) sulfate dissolved in 20ml water). Repeat until no more peroxide
is detected with strip.
A moistened Peroxide Test strip can be used to
measure peroxide levels in air. Briefly dip the test strip in water,
shake off surplus liquid and expose to the air for 10 minutes. Then
match the color.
|Matched Color Value
||Concentration of Gaseous H2O2
Influence of Cations and Anions
A green to blue coloration of the reaction zone
at pH 5-6 is caused by more than 5mg/l Au3+, 5mg/l Ce4+,
250mg/l Hg+, 10mg/l CrO2–4,
10mg/l [Fe(CN)6]3–, 40mg/l O4
, 2mg/l MnO4, 20mg/l S2O2–8
or 5mg/l VO–3 as well as by Br2 and Cl2.
Elimination of Interfering Ions
The oxidizing anions listed above can be removed
with Amberlite® IRA-400 ion exchanger. Fill a glass column
(diameter 5-10 mm) with approximately 1 g ion exchanger and allow the
test solution, adjusted to pH 5-6 with 1 mol/l hydrochloric acid or 1
mol/l sodium hydroxide solution to run through the column slowly (1
drop/second). Test the eluate for peroxide. At below pH 1.5, Au3+
is separated as AuCl-4 by the ion exchanger. Hg+
is precipitated by adding sodium chloride. Ce4+ is masked
by adding a small spatula tip of potassium fluoride to about 5ml of
the test solution.
Add approximately 0.33ml of 30% Perhydrol to
approximately 100ml of distilled water and find the exact
concentration by titrimetry. Dilute to the required strength.
10011 EM Quant® Pack of Peroxide
Test 100 test strips
Purchase Peroxide Test Strips 0.5-25 ppm EM Quant (1 PK of 100) 10011-1 EMD
Gallade Part#: 10011
Mfr Part#: 10011-1
Brand: EMD Chemicals EM Science
Container: 1 PK of 100 Strips
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